notably in the development of the rhythm section. african-american musicians, who were marching in the early brass bands in new orleans used bass drums, snare drums, cymbals-- put them together into a repeating rhythmic unit. and later on, when this music moves indoors, musicians put these together into a single set--the drum set. [band playing dixieland] the drum set and the bass are called the rhythm unit in a band and they interact much in the way the percussion ensemble would-- an african percussion ensemble would-- and they provide the rhythmic drive and the rhythmic vitality to popular musics and jazz.
(redman) rhythm is something which is important in all musics. in jazz it may be even a little bit more important, because rhythm is at the heart and soul of jazz, and a certain way of phrasing rhythm-- a certain approach to rhythm-- which we call swing, is at the heart and soul of jazz. it's very difficult to define what swing is. you can technically try to define it in the sense that swing is a subdivision of rhythm which is in a certain way off-center. it's uneven. if i play a series of notes-- eighth notes--very straight-- let me do that. [playing notes]
those eighth notes are played straight; there's no swing involved. now, if i put a swing feel on those eighth notes, they're gonna become uneven. one is going to be a little bit longer than the other, and the shorter one is actually going to have a certain accent that the longer one doesn't have. the rhythm comes alive; it dances a little bit. so we can take that concept of the swing rhythm, and apply it to any melody,
or just about any melody, and turn that melody, turn that composition into a jazz performance-- a jazz interpretation. and that gives it a jazz flavor, and so that swing element is one of the key things which defines jazz and one of the key elements in the language of jazz. (man) when you perform music, you do it across time, and you do it in organized units. this is what rhythm is. it can be extremely regular, it can be extremely irregular. it can be extremely complicated, or very, very simple. how you break up the units is extremely important,
>> the allegiance of these groups have been moving regularly over the past few years and we are seeing that targets that have been struck were threatening the interests and thessad regime russian naval and air bases. >> some rebels say they were also targeted by russia. the u.s. is becoming increasingly suspicious of een as allntention, s the more dangerous as russia uses the same airspace as the u.s.-led coalition. not informinge the coalition with enough time. in essence, they are not cooperating. to u.s.: according defense officials, the two sides are planning to hold talks on thursday to avoid their planes
from crashing in the skies over syria. >> joining me, a former general in the french air force. how close did you expect the united states and russia to work together, given that they now officially have the same enemy? >> they are already working .ogether in some way they will be a lie just -- be obliged to meet and work together more closely. taking theirs place for intervening up to a very complete integration, sharing assets and diligence. >> will this be a case of sharing intelligence? or will this be a case of "you better get out of the way because we are about to bomb the
area"? >> i think they will share intelligence. from the skies, it is very difficult to know if a rebel is a good rebel or a bad rebel, a cia-backed rebel, or whatever, so they need to know who to hit. also, putin's forces are intervening as an ally of the government of syria. the coalition is not doing exactly the same job. >> france is also taking part in strikes against islamic state targets in syria, but the french government refuses outright to support president assad, as the russians want to. how will that work? >> france is not working by itself there. it is working beside a coalition , so the french will do what the coalition is doing.
the coalition will work with russia in some way. >> thank you very much for joining us. the rising number of syrians seeking refuge in europe has helped put the conflict on top of the agenda at this year's u.n. general assembly. at least 700,000 migrants and refugees are expected to reach europe via the mediterranean this year and many, if not more, are expected in 2016. reporter: the tide of migrants pouring into europe is on the rise,hat's -- the according to the u.n. refugee agency. it has doubled the figures it initially anticipated. unhcr has doubled the numbers. it is possible there could be even greater numbers of arrivals
next year. planning is based for the moment on figures similar to 2015. the agency says that the figures refer to those expected to take refuge by crossing the mediterranean. on thursday, there was no let up in the wave of refugees and migrants making the treacherous journey to escape conflict and economic hardship in middle east and africa. luckywere amongst the hundreds to obtain refugee status in france. >> i'm very happy to receive these papers, but my priority is my family, who stayed behind. i would like us to be reunited. reporter: more than half of those who have reached europe this year are syrians. some 4 million have fled their homes since the outbreak of the war. >> on israeli couple have been shot -- an israeli couple have been shot dead while driving
through the west bank. their children were also in the car and are now being treated for shock. the family was driving near a jewish settlement. jewish forces are searching the area for the attacker. israeli a crime -- is really prime minister -- is greatly -- minister netanyahu tod he could not allow iran obtain nuclear weaponry. 70 years after the murder of 6 million jews, iran's rulers promised to destroy my country, murder my people, and the response from this body, the response from nearly every one of the governments represented
nothing been absolutely , utter silence. deafening silence. netanyahu went on to call for direct peace talks with the palestinians. urged president mahmoud abbas to drop any preconditions to dialogue. tehran and -- often exchange opposite sides in conflicts in the middle east. andelations between riyadh tehran reaching a new low. dead.eclared 464 pilgrims
after days of fierce debate to repatriate bodies, ministers from both countries agreed upon the transfer. in the iranian capital, tensions continue to run high. the country's leaders blame saudi arabia for sabotaging the most important event in the muslim calendar. >> there not -- they are not at the same level and cannot rival us in any way. we observed islam and decency and brotherly respect in the muslim world -- observe islamic decency and brotherly respect in the muslim world. riyadh haspart, launched an investigation into has said officials will be held accountable if mistakes were made.
for the time being, the blame game continues. saudi arabia is accusing iran of playing politics with tragedy. >> this is not a situation with which to play politics. i would hope that the iranian leaders with the more sensible with regards to those who perished in the tragedy. >> the latest spat between the two rivals could not come at a worse time. they are not just torn over religions. for decades, they have supported different sides of conflicts in the region. most recently, they have been at odds over iran's support of rebels in yemen. in afghanistan, government forces have retaken the center of the city of kunduz, but many parts of it still remain under the control of the taliban. four days ago, militants seized
the city. president ashraf ghani praised his troops. >> we praise our country's security officials for their tireless efforts in leading the war from 10:00 p.m. wednesday night until the early morning. during the rest of the day, they managed to successfully launch operations. the good news is that not one of our troops was martyred. >> catherine james now reports from kabul. there is fighting still going on around the city. catherine: the government did claim major parts of the city, but they definitely do not have full control. in the broader districts throughout the province, there continued to be places that see sporadic fighting, also in some of the other provinces to the , theand south of kunduz army is also fighting on fronts there.
we have a situation where the government is also trying to avoid civilian casualties. from thewe have seen only operating hospital in kunduz these days as of last night that they had already received up to 300 wounded, and that is only the people who could make it to the hospital. they had done over 90 surgeries. they have some 66 children there. and the civilian casualty rate is quite high. >> egypt says it is preparing to announce a huge archaeological find. experts believe queen nefertiti may be buried along with to do in common -- with touch in tutankhamen.h >> he may not be alone in his burial chamber.
-- if you tell it just wants to look -- this digit egyptologist wants to look behind the walls of where to do in common -- where tutankhamen lies. >> my views on this changed when i saw scans of the burial chamber wall. >> the digital scans reviewed the presence -- revealed the presence of two doorways. the theory is that it was for queen nefertiti. death may have seen his body rushed into an extension of the queen's mausoleum. nefertiti is best known for the bust of her image discovered in 1912, but her money has -- her
mummy has never been found. archaeologists are hoping to carry out sophisticated radar scans which could potentially locate it. egyptian authorities hope this will bring more visitors to the burial site. the country's tourism has suffered due to political turmoil in recent years. >> markus karlsson is with us in the studio. troubled times ahead for air france. france seems to be on course for a major restructuring. we understand the parent company has officially given its backing to this restructuring. we still don't know all of the details, but this could pave the way for 3000 job cuts at air france. this follows a breakdown in talks between the airline and unions to improve profitability. air france pilots rejected a
proposal for staff to work longer hours for the same salary . the carrier is under pressure after four years of losses. clare: this latest crisis at klm sees management on a collision course with pilots once again. air france has threatened to slash jobs unless pilots accept cost cuts and changes to their working conditions. pilots unions have threatened strike action in return. >> every time the management make us an offer, they just say sign at the bottom of the page without any possibility of negotiating changes. >> this year, the struggling franco dutch airline group was on the verge of reporting its first profit in five years. year was marred by industrial action.
analysts say productivity figures speech -- speak for themselves. each employee produces just value forros of the company, with a similar level at the concept -- at luf thansa. streamlining can work. all three airline groups continue to face the same challenges. low-cost rivals are dominating short-haul services, while middle eastern carriers continue to extend their networks and all atansfer traffic, the expense of traditional european hubs. markus: volkswagen says its probe into the emission scandal will take months. it has hired an american law firm to get to the bottom of it. it will take time to provide well-founded answers. volkswagen is pushing back an
extraordinary shareholders meeting that was due to take place in november -- in nov ember. german prosecutors have not opened a germinal probe of martin winterkorn -- opened a criminal probe of martin winterkorn. a criminal say that probe is underway, but it is not focused on any one individual. winterkorn stepped down last week, but maintained he was unaware of the scandal before it was released. there is fresh evidence that the chinese economy is facing headwinds. the chinese manufacturing sector shrank for a second consecutive month, according to china's official purchasing managers index. it came in at 49.8 in september after 49.7 the previous month. a reading under 50 signals contraction and is a signal the economy is struggling to regain
momentum. over china and a slowing chinese economy led to softness in stock markets during the third quarter, which ended just yesterday. let's see how the fourth quarter has kicked off as we enter october. in the united states this session, shares trading broadly lower. we have also seen shares coming off of their previous lows this session. biotech shares are weighing on the focus is now turning onto the jobs report for september, which is due out on friday and may provide clues on where the u.s. economy is heading next. let's take you through the european close. we saw shares mostly closing lower, except for the london ftse 100, the main outlier among the indices. this follows a strong performance on the last day of the third quarter. the european markets had a bleak
looking third quarter. the fourth quarter is kicking off on a similar note this time around. let's bring you up-to-date with a few other stories. closed more than 9% lower on thursday, leading the entire european telecom sector lower, following news that the company is looking to raise 2 billion euros by selling new stocks. sfr erates under the brand. the company is looking to fund its 16 billion euro purchase of cablevision. greece aren expressing concerns over sales tax hikes. they are scrapping a rebate for these islands, which include mykonos and--
santorini. the car market in the united states -- carmakers have reported a double-digit jump in september sales, following booming sales in august as well, when cars rolled out of dealerships at the fastest rate since 2005. fiat chrysler up by 14%. general motors up by 12%. thehe united states, country is going through a credit card revolution. banks have been sending out new chip-equipped cards. merchants without a chip-enabled card reader will be lliab -- liable for fraud carried out with magnetic-strip cards.
more from washington. reporter: they are putting their cards pieces -- they are cutting their credit cards to pieces. it is a case of out with the old, in with something europe has had for several years. >> you take it out and handed back to the client. -- and hand it back to the client. reporter: he and his repair shop are up to speed. even the smallest businesses have had to get their hands on these if they want to take card payment. >> i was told if i didn't comply and either lease or purchase one of these pieces of equipment, that potential fraud issue could fall back on the merchant. reporter: some new users are still coming to grips with this new, rather for an system. system.er foreign
10/01/15 10/01/15 [captioning made possible by democracy now!] amy: from pacifica, this is democracy now! >> today the planes of russia's air force have carried out targeted strikes on the territory syrian arab republic. around 20 flights have been carried out. amy: russia becomes the 10th foreign government to bomb syria as the devastating war takes a new twist. tension is growing between moscow and washington over